26A John Pine 1740


To commemorate the English victory over the Spanish Armada in 1588, Robert Adams (c.1540-1595) published, in 1590, Expeditionis Hispanorum in Angliam vera description, Anno Do MDLXXXVIII which contained eleven maps by Augustinus Ryther. These maps traced the progress of the Spanish and English fleets from the first sighting off the Lizard, along the English Channel to Calais and Graveline and the Spanish flight around Scotland and Ireland to their return home. Lord Howard of Effingham, the Commander of the English fleet, commissioned Hendrik Cornelius Vroom to design ten tapestries to illustrate the various engagements depicted on Adams´ maps. These tapestries were woven by another Dutchman, Francois Spierinck, and eventually hung in the House of Lords where they were exhibited until being destroyed in a major fire in 1834.1

In 1739 John Pine (1690-1756) utilized the eleven Adams maps and the ten tapestries to produce his The Tapestry Hangings of the House of Lords. Pine engraved the maps, reduced to approximately half size, and mounted two to a sheet. The general map of the British Isles occupies one sheet and is, as are the other five, surrounded by an engraved allegorical border of battles, storms, prisoners and various armaments. On some of the sheets are cameo portraits of persons worthy of mention; Queen Elizabeth II twice, Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir Francis Drake, Sir M Frobisher and Sir John Hawkins.

The first edition of Pine´s work comprised an ornate title page, a dedication to George II, two pages of subscribers and 23 pages of text by the Rev. Philip Morant, M.A., Rector of St. Mary´s, Colchester. Following the text are the six sheets of maps described above and ten sheets copied from the tapestries. These latter sheets show the various stages of the conflict in graphic detail. In 1753 the second edition2 was published which included two additional maps dated 1740 and engraved by Pine. The first of these is a map of the Thames orientated with east to the left and west to the right. The second map is of Devon and Cornwall showing the fortifications of those two counties as they were in 1588.

This final map of the two counties is a copy of a very large manuscript map (approx. 610 x 1575 mm) held in the Cotton Collection at the British Library. The title (Db), occupying most of Devon, is in an elaborate cartouche surmounted by the Royal coat of arms, a lion and a dragon. The inland space is void except for an uniform indication of hills. The only engraved names are coastal towns and features such as bays and points. The fortifications are detailed as earthworks and there are two symbols of troops, one with pikes and the other with muskets carried at the slope. A few castles are identified and houses are shown in major harbour towns such as Plymouth. There is engraving above the top border showing Neptune and attendant cherubs surrounded by cannon, pikes and muskets. Within the lower frame is an engraving of two interlocked anchors and seaweed.

Size 380 x 660 mm.  No scale.

Framed map area 293 x 650 mm.                                                                                                               

A Plott of all the Coast of CORNWALL and DEVONSHIRE, as they were to be fortified in 1588 against the Landing of any Enemy. Provenance: Taken from the Original in the Cottonian Library. Imprint: Engraved and Published by J. Pine – March 25. 1740. According to Act of Parliament. in attaractive cartouche (Eb).


1. 1740 The Tapestry Hangings of the House of Lords.  
  London. John Pine. 1740. BL, NLS, Man, NMM, (KB).

[1] Our grateful thanks to the late Dr A Almond for drawing our attention to the maps described above and for writing this text. References: D Schrire; Adams´ and Pine´s Maps of the Spanish Armada; Map Collectors´Circle, No. 4; 1963 and R Shirley; Maps in Atlases in the British Library; 2004. See also Dr Almond´s article, Maps of the Spanish Armada, in the IMCoS Journal 109; Summer 2007; pages 7-13.

[2] Two states are known: with and without Second Edition on title page. While Dr Almond´s copy lacked this, the British Library copy has it clearly printed.